Types of Majorities used in the Indian Parliament

Types of Majorities used in the Indian Parliament

This article provides useful information about Types of Majorities Used While Voting in the Indian Parliament. Simple, Absolute and Special majorities in Indian Constitution.

Types of majorities in Indian Constitution

There are 4 types of Majorities as per the Indian Constitution, they are Absolute Majority, Effective Majority, Simple Majority and Special Majority.

There are various types of majorities followed in Indian Parliament to pass specific bills and motions as follows:

Simple Majority

This refers to the majority of more than 50% of the members present and voting.

This is also known as functional majority or working majority.

The simple majority is the most frequently used form of majority in Parliamentary business.

When the constitution or the laws do not specify the type of majority needed, the simple majority is considered for voting.

Ordinary bills need to be passed with a simple majority in both Houses of the Parliament before it is sent to Indian President for his assent.

Absolute majority

It refers to a majority of more than 50% of the total membership of the house.

For example, if the total strength of Rajya Sabha or Upper house is 250 then the absolute majority will be considered as 126 irrespective of voting number.

In the normal business of the Parliament or State Legislature absolute majority, is not generally used.

This majority is used during the general election, for the formation of government at Centre and States.

Effective Majority

Effective Majority of the house means more than 50% of the effective strength of the house.

This implies that out of the total strength, we deduct the vacant seats.

When Indian Constitution mentions “all the then members”, that refers to the effective majority.

For example, in Rajya Sabha, out of the total strength of 245 members if there are 45 vacancies, then the effective strength of the house is 200.

Then the effective majority is 50% of 200 plus 1, i.e. 101.

Special Majority

This is a special kind of majority required in certain cases.

The majority votes of 2/3rd members present and voting and also these votes should exceed 50% of the total strength of house.

For example, lets assume the strength of the house is 250 and 230 are present.

Now the absolute majority will be considered if the positive votes will exceed both condition – 2/3rd of present and voting that is 154 and more than 50% of total strength of the house that is 126.

So in this condition 154 votes will be required.

Also read:

SSC GK Polity Notes on Union & its Territories

Local Self-Government (Panchayati Raj System)

Important Polity Notes On Emergency

SSC GK Polity Notes: Parliament of India


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