SSC Polity: Judiciary in India (Part-1)

SSC Polity: Judiciary in India (Part-1)

In this article, we have discussed the important SSC GK Polity Notes based on the Indian Judiciary. You will find the important points and facts about Indian Judiciary.

Important Points to remember:

♦ Judiciary is an important branch of the government of India.

♦ It is an independent body and is different from Executive and legislature.

♦ The Judiciary is the third organ of the government.

♦ It has the responsibility to apply the laws to specific cases and settle all disputes.

♦ Judiciary operates in such a way that it keeps both the executive and legislature in their mandated role.

♦ The main function is to deliver justice to the people.

♦ Indian judiciary inherited its legal system from the British colonial rule.

♦ The single system of courts has been adopted by Government of India act 1935, enforces both central laws as well as state laws.

Structure of Judiciary of India

♦ Indian constitution has established an integrated judicial system.

♦ It has three Tier structure –

  1. Supreme Court
  2. High Court
  3. Subordinate Court

Supreme Court of India

♦ The Supreme court of India was inaugurated on 28th January 1950.

♦ It Succeeded the federal court of India which was established under GOI act 1935.

♦ The Supreme Court replaced the British Privy council.

♦ Moreover, Article 124 to 147 of the Indian Constitution deals with the composition, appointment, powers, procedures etc. of Supreme court.

♦ It is final interpreter and guardian of the Constitution & guarantor of fundamental rights of citizens.

♦ The Supreme court is situated in Delhi.

High Courts

♦ The High Court of India operates below the Supreme court.

♦ It is at the top position in Judicial Administration of state.

♦ Originated in 1866, high courts were set up in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras.

♦ In the Constitution, there is a provision for the High court in each state but by 7th amendment act of 1956 one or more state can have common high court.

Subordinate Courts

♦ The Subordinate Courts are subordinate to State High Courts.

♦ These Courts functions under high court at district and other lower level.

♦ Article 233 to 237 of the Constitution deals with the Subordinate Court.

Importance of the Judiciary:

♦ The importance of the judiciary in a democratic society can hardly be exaggerated.

♦ Judiciary is a part of the democratic process.

♦ Judiciary not only administers justice, it protects the rights of the citizens and it acts as the interpreter and guardian of the constitution.

♦ In many states the judiciary enjoys the power of judicial review by virtue of which the judiciary decides the constitutional validity of the laws enacted or of the decree issued.

♦ It can invalidate such laws and decrees which are not constitutional.


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