SSC GK Medieval History Notes: The Marathas

SSC GK Medieval History Notes: The Marathas

Read here complete SSC GK History Notes for SSC CGL Tier I, CHSL Tier I 2018 & other SSC Exams. Get all important facts related to Maratha Empire.

Rise of Maratha Empire:

Shivaji (1674 -1680 CE)

◘ The Marathas rose to power under Shivaji.

◘ He was born at Shivner Fort in 1627. His father was Shahji Bhonsle and mother was Jijabai.

◘ He inherited the Jagir of Poona from his father.

◘ He conquered many forts like, Kondana, Chakan, Toran, Purandhar, Rajgarh, Supa and Panhala.

◘ He had a council of ministers called Asthapradhana.

◘ The Bijapur Sultan sent Afzal Khan against Shivaji, but he was murdered by Shivaji in 1659.

Raja Jai Singh of Amer was sent by Aurangzeb to put down Shivaji in 1665. He succeeded in besieging the Fort of Purandar and opened negotiations with Shivaji.

Shaista Khan, was sent by Aurangzeb against Shivaji, he defeated and captured Poona from Shivaji. But Shivaji made a bold attack on Shaista Khan and plundered Surat and Ahmednagar.

◘ The Treaty of Purandar was signed in 1665, according to which, Shivaji had to surrender 23 forts out of 35 forts held by him to Mughals.

◘ When Shivaji visited Agra in 1666, he was imprisoned there.

◘ Shivaji escaped from Agra and began Military preparations.

◘ He then captured all his lost territories from the Mughals.

◘ In 1674, he assumed the title of Chhatrapati.

◘ He conquested Karnataka during 1677-80 before his death.

The Peshwas :-

Balaji Vishwanath (1713-1720 AD)

◘ He was the first Peshwa.

◘ Balaji Vishwanath gained certain rights from then Mughal emperor Farukh Siyar.

Balaji Rao I (1720-1740 AD)

◘ He was the son of Balaji Vishwanath.

◘ The Maratha power reached its zenith under him.

◘ He started the Confederacy among Maratha chiefs.

◘ Under the system of confederacy, each Maratha chief was assigned a territory which was administered autonomously. Hence, many Maratha families gained prominence.

Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761 AD)

◘ Balaji Baji Rao succeeded his father as Peshwa Baji Rao I.

◘ He became the sole controller of Maratha kingdom.

◘ He entered into an agreement with the Mughal emperor Ahmed Shah in 1752, according to which, the Peshwas would protect the Mughal empire from external and internal threats.

◘ Therefore, when Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India, Marathas fought Third Battle of Panipat in 1761.

◘ Though Marathas fought bravely, they were defeated. This marks the decline of Maratha Power in India.

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