SSC GK Medieval History Notes: The Marathas
Read here complete SSC GK History Notes for SSC CGL Tier I, CHSL Tier I 2018 & other SSC Exams. Get all important facts related to Maratha Empire.
Rise of Maratha Empire:
Shivaji (1674 -1680 CE)
◘ The Marathas rose to power under Shivaji.
◘ He was born at Shivner Fort in 1627. His father was Shahji Bhonsle and mother was Jijabai.
◘ He inherited the Jagir of Poona from his father.
◘ He conquered many forts like, Kondana, Chakan, Toran, Purandhar, Rajgarh, Supa and Panhala.
◘ He had a council of ministers called Asthapradhana.
◘ The Bijapur Sultan sent Afzal Khan against Shivaji, but he was murdered by Shivaji in 1659.
◘ Raja Jai Singh of Amer was sent by Aurangzeb to put down Shivaji in 1665. He succeeded in besieging the Fort of Purandar and opened negotiations with Shivaji.
◘ Shaista Khan, was sent by Aurangzeb against Shivaji, he defeated and captured Poona from Shivaji. But Shivaji made a bold attack on Shaista Khan and plundered Surat and Ahmednagar.
◘ The Treaty of Purandar was signed in 1665, according to which, Shivaji had to surrender 23 forts out of 35 forts held by him to Mughals.
◘ When Shivaji visited Agra in 1666, he was imprisoned there.
◘ Shivaji escaped from Agra and began Military preparations.
◘ He then captured all his lost territories from the Mughals.
◘ In 1674, he assumed the title of Chhatrapati.
◘ He conquested Karnataka during 1677-80 before his death.
The Peshwas :-
Balaji Vishwanath (1713-1720 AD)
◘ He was the first Peshwa.
◘ Balaji Vishwanath gained certain rights from then Mughal emperor Farukh Siyar.
Balaji Rao I (1720-1740 AD)
◘ He was the son of Balaji Vishwanath.
◘ The Maratha power reached its zenith under him.
◘ He started the Confederacy among Maratha chiefs.
◘ Under the system of confederacy, each Maratha chief was assigned a territory which was administered autonomously. Hence, many Maratha families gained prominence.
Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761 AD)
◘ Balaji Baji Rao succeeded his father as Peshwa Baji Rao I.
◘ He became the sole controller of Maratha kingdom.
◘ He entered into an agreement with the Mughal emperor Ahmed Shah in 1752, according to which, the Peshwas would protect the Mughal empire from external and internal threats.
◘ Therefore, when Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India, Marathas fought Third Battle of Panipat in 1761.
◘ Though Marathas fought bravely, they were defeated. This marks the decline of Maratha Power in India.