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SSC GK Ancient History notes: Chola dynasty

SSC GK Ancient History notes: Chola dynasty

SSC GK Ancient History study notes on Chola dynasty for SSC CGL, MTS, CHSL, CPO, UPSC, IAS, Banking, Railways etc.

History and Origin of Cholas:

► The Cholas were beyond any doubt the original inhabitants of the south.

► Cholamandalam, or the land of the Cholas, extended along the Coromondal coast from Nellore to Pudukattai.

► References about them are found in the Mahabharata and in the inscriptions of Ashoka.

► After the decline of the Pallavas that the Cholas came again to prominence.

Vijayalaya Chola (850-875)

► The founder of the later Chola Empire was Vijayalaya (850-875).

► He defeated the Pallavas and captured Tanjore which became the capital of the dynasty.

► His son Aditya defeated the last Pallava king Aparajita and annexed Pallava kingdom.

Rajaraja I (985-1014)

► Rajaraja I popularly called Rajaraja the Great was one of the greatest rulers of the Chola dynasty.

► He defeated Cheras (Trivendrum), Pandayas & Annexed Northern Srilanka.

► It was during his time that the Chola kingdom became an empire.

► One of his greatest achievements was the building of a powerful navy.

► His kingdom included the whole of Tamil Nadu and a part of Karnataka, Kalinga, northern part of Sri Lanka and a large number of islands.

► He was also a great patron of literature and art.

► The famous temple of Tanjore built by him is a living monument of his building activities.

► Rajaraja was undoubtedly the greatest monarch of the Chola dynasty.

Rajendra I (1014-1044)

► Rajendra I was the worthy son of a worthy father.

► We can know about his achievements from his stone inscriptions of Tirumalai and Tiruvalangamadu and Tanjore copper plates.

► He conquered the remaining part of Sri Lanka, Central India and Orissa.

► In A.D. 1023 he invaded Bengal, defeated its king Mahipala I.

► He assumed the title of Gongai-Konda and established a new capital city – Gongai-Konda Cholapuram.

► His naval supremacy enabled him to conquer lower Burma in A.D. 1025-27 and annex the Andaman and Nicobar islands.

► Another great achievement of Rajendra was the invasion of the Sailendra Empire.

► He attained success and the Sailendra monarch accepted his suzerainty.

Later Rulers:

► The last able ruler of the Chola dynasty was Rajadhiraj Chola.

► The mighty Chola Empire once again sank into obscurity by the middle of the thirteenth century when the Pandyas defeated the Cholas.

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