SSC CGL Study Notes on Bhakti Movement
SSC CGL Study Notes on Bhakti Movement
SSC CGL Study Notes on Bhakti Movement. Some important points for various competitive exams, such as SSC CGL, MTS, CPO, CHSL, STENO, RAILWAY etc.
Some important points:
► The Bhakti Movement originated in the seventh-century in Tamil, South India (now parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala), and spread northwards.
► An all-India socio-religious movement spread in the Middle Ages in India.
► Its aim was to stop conversions to Islam and fight the tyranny of Brahmans in the social set-up of Hindus.
► It swept over east and north India from the 15th century onwards, reached its peak between the 15th and 17th century CE.
Some Important Bhakti Saints:
Shankara (788 – 820 AD)
► A Hindu revivalist movement giving a new placement to Hinduism was started by Shankara.
► Kaladi in Kerala is his birthplace.
► His doctrine of Monoism or Advaita was too abstract to appeal the common people.
Ramanuja (1017 – 1137 AD)
► Ramanuja preached unity of God under the name of Vishnu in Southern India.
► He proclaimed the love of God as the way to salvation.
► Ramanuja established hundreds of Vaishnava monasteries before he died.
Ramananda (15th century)
► He was born at Allahabad. Initially he was a follower of Ramanuja.
► Later he founded his own sect and preached his principles in Hindi at Banaras and Agra.
► Ramananda was the first to employ the vernacular medium to spread his ideas.
► He opposed the caste system and chose his disciples from all sections of society irrespective of caste.
Kabir (1440 – 1510 AD)
► Kabir was a disciple of Ramananda.
► Kabir conceived the lofty ideal of uniting Hindus and Muslims in the worship of one God.
► Kabir’s aim was to reunite Hindus and Muslims and form harmony between them.
► His followers are called Kabirpanthis.
Guru Nanak (1469 – 1538 AD)
► Nanak was born in 1469. He was a disciple of Kabir.
► He was founder of the Sikh Religion.
► He preached the same monotheism and conceived the same great idea of uniting Hindus and Muslims in the worship of One God.
► The Granth of Nanak is well known, and has been translated into English.
Chaitanya Maha Prabhu (1468 – 1533 AD)
► Almost contemporaneous with the reformer of the Punjab, Chaitanya was born in Nadiya in 1486.
► Chaitanya preached in Bengal the religion of One God under the name of Vishnu.
► He too invited Muslims to join his sect, but his following was almost entirely Hindu.
Vallabha (1481–1533 AD)
► A brahmana from Telegu, he founded the Pushti-Marg, which affirms the role of grace in reaching salvation.
► He taught that sannyasa is not possible in the current age.
► There are a good number of his Gujarati followers in the UK.
Mira Bai (1498 – 1546 AD)
► Mira Bai was another great saint of the medieval times.
► She was born in the Merta district in 1498 and was married to Bhoj Raj, the son of renowned warrior Rana Sanga of Mewa.
► Mira became a devotee of Krishna right from childhood and always carried a small image of Girdhar Gopal with her.
► After marriage she continued her devotion towards Krishna and became popular as a Divine singer.
Dadu Dayal (1554 – 1603 AD)
► Later than Nanak and Chaitanya, Dadu was born in Ahmadabad in 1544, and has left a body of sacred poetry in 20,000 lines.
► His disciples spread his teachings all through Rajputana.
Tulsidas (1532 – 1623 AD)
► Tulsidas was a great poet and a devotee.
► He was born in a Brahman family in 1532.
► His works, apart from his magnum opus Ram Charit Manas include Gitawali, Kavitawali, Vinaya Patrika etc.
Tukarama (1608–1649 AD)
► A saint from Western India who worshipped the famous deity of Vishnu known as Vitthala in Pandhapur, Maharastra.
► He was part of an important Vaishnava tradition known as Dasa Kuta.
► Other poet saints such as Namdev (1270–1350) also came in this line.
Importance of the Bhakti Movement:
► Bhakti movement provided a spur for the development of regional languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Kannada, etc.
► The lower classes rose to a position of great importance.
► The Bhakti movement gave equal importance to men and women which gave way to the importance of women in society.