Polity : President of India
Important Facts : –
- According to Article 52, there shall be a President of India who will be the “First citizen of India”.
- Tenure of the office is 5 years.
- According to Article 53(2) President is the ‘supreme Commander’ of the defense forces of the Union
- First President was “Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Present president of India is “Shri Ramnath Kovind”.
- According to Article 55, President is indirectly elected by an “electoral college” by means of single transferable vote system.
Qualifications : –
- He must be a citizen of India.
- Minimum age: 35 years.
- Qualified for election as a member of Lok-Sabha
- Must not hold any office of Profit.
- President submits his/her resignation in writing to the vice President of India.
power of the President:-
- Administrative powers: –
- President is the formal head of the administration.
- He have the power to appoint and remove higher dignitaries like Prime minister, CAG, Chairman & members of UPSC, Attorney- General, Chief Justice, Governor of state, Chief election commission etc.
- Military powers:-
- He is supreme commander of the defence forces.
- He has various powers but the parliament can regulate or control the usage of such powers mentioned in Article 53(2).
- Legislative Powers:-
- President has the power to summon or discontinue the houses of the parliament.
- He addresses both houses of the parliament in a joint session after each general elections of Lok-Sabha for the 1st
- 12 Members are nominated by the President in the RajyaSabha from the fields of science, Literature, Art and Social Service.
4. Emergency Powers : –
- President has extra power to deal with the situations of emergency.
- Pardoning Powers : –
- President as well as Governors have the powers to grant pardon.
- Commutation : – In this, president can substitute one form of punishment into another form of punishment into another form of punishment of lighter character.
- Remission:- President can reduce the amount of sentence without changing its character.
- Respite :- Is this power, president has right to award a lesser sentence instead of the penalty prescribed.
- Reprieve – President has the right to make a stay on the execution of a sentence.
- It is a Quasi-Judicial procedure of the Parliament.
- According to Article 61(1), the only ground for the impeachment is “Violation” of the constitution of India.
- It can be imposed only once in a term period of 5 year.
- It has never occurred in India.