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Mountains and Types of mountains

Mountains and Types of mountains

Geography notes on mountains and types of mountains, Important for SSC CGL, RAILWAY and many other government exams.

How are mountains formed?

Mountains are formed by slow but gigantic movements of the earth’s crust (the outer layer of the Earth).

The Earth’s crust is made up of 6 huge slabs called plates, which fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. When two slabs of the earth’s crust smash into each other the land can be pushed upwards, forming mountains.

Types of Mountains-

1. Fold Mountains: Fold Mountains are formed when two plates run into each other or collide. The force of the two plates running into each other causes the Earth’s crust to crumple and fold.

Example: Andes, Himalayas, and the Rockies.

2. Fault-block Mountains: Fault-block Mountains are formed along Faults where some large blocks of rock are forced upwards while others are forced down. The higher area is sometimes called a “Horst” and the lower a “graben” (see the picture below).

Example: The Sierra Nevada Mountains in the western United States, the Harz Mountains in Germany.

3. Volcanic mountains: Mountains that are caused by volcanic activity are called volcanic mountains. There are two main type of volcanic mountains: volcanoes and Dome Mountains. Volcanoes are formed when magma erupts all the way to the surface of the Earth. The magma will harden on the Earth’s surface, forming mountain.

Example: Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Rainer in the US, including Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii.

4. Dome mountains: It form when large globs of magma float up from beneath the crust and push up surface rocks, creating a rounded swelling in the crust. Once the magma cools, it creates a large dome of harder rock under the surface, which erosion sometimes reveals.

Example: Half Dome in the Sierra Nevada range in California.

5. Plateau Mountains (Erosion Mountains): These mountains are formed by erosion. Plateaus are large flat areas that have been pushed above sea level by forces within the Earth, or have been formed by layers of lava. The dictionary describes these as large areas of ‘high levels’ of flat land, over 600 meters above sea level.

Example: The mountains in New Zealand are examples of plateau mountains

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