List of British Viceroy, UPSC Exam Preparation, SSC Preparation

British Viceroy and their Works: Part – 1

British Viceroy and their Works: Part – 1

Here is a “List of British Viceroys during British India”, so that you can easily learn the chronology as well as their contribution. It is important for SSC, UPSC, CHSL, MTS, Railway etc.

1. Lord Canning (1856 – 1862)

  • The last Governor General and the first Viceroy.
  • Mutiny took place in his time.
  • On November, 1858, the rule passed on to the crown.
  • Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
  • The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established in 1857.
  • Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861.

2. Lord John Lawrence (1864 -69)

  • Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe.
  • High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
  • Expanded canal works and railways.
  • Created the Indian Forest department.

3. Lord Mayo (1869 – 1872)

  • Started the process of financial decentralization in India.
  • Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar and Mayo College at Ajmer for the Indian princes.
  • For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871.
  • Organised the Statistical Survey of India.
  • Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872.

4. Lord Lytton (1876 – 1880)

  • Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters.
  • Organised the Grand ‘Delhi Durbar’ in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of ‘Kaiser I Hind’.
  • Arms act (1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms.
  • Passed the infamous Vernacular Press act (1878).

5. Lord Rippon (1880 – 1884)

  • Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians.
  • Repeated the Vernacular Press act (1882)
  • Passed the local self government act (1882)
  • Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission’s recommendations).
  • The I Factory act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour.
  • Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.

6. Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888)

  • The Indian National Congress was formed during his period.

7. Lord Landsdowne (1888-94)

  • II Factory act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men.
  • Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate.
  • Indian Council act of 1892 was passed.
  • Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.

8. Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905)

  • Passed the Indian Universities act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased.
  • Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces Bengal (proper) & East Bengal & Assam.
  • Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province.
  • The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP).
  • Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection act (1904), to restore India’s cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established.
  • Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency act (1899) and put India on a gold standard.
  • Extended railways to a great extent.

9. Lord Minto II (1905-10)

  • Surat session and Split in the congress.
  • Minto Morley reforms.
  • Foundation of Muslim League by Aga Khan Nawab of Dacca in 1906.

10. Lord Hardinge (1910 – 1916)

  • Held a durbar in December, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V.
  • Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
  • A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (December 23, 1912).
  • Gandhiji came back to India from South Africa (1915).
  • Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.

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