Latitude, Longitude And Time Zones

Latitude, Longitude And Time Zones

Geography Notes on Latitude and Longitude. This article is very important for various competitive exams like SSC CGL, MTS, CPO, CHSL, Railway, Bank PO etc.

Latitude and longitude

  • Latitude and longitude are imaginary (unreal) lines drawn on maps to easily locate places on the Earth.
  • Both are measured in terms of the 360 degrees of a circle.

LatitudeOne of the imaginary circles parallel to the Equator is called latitude.

  • The latitudes have their centers on one common line and they have different radii.
  • Latitude is distance, measured in degrees, north or south of the Equator.
  • The Equator is the line of 0° latitude, the starting point for measuring latitude.
  • The latitude of the North Pole is 90° N, and that of the South Pole is 90° S.
  • The latitude of every point in between must be some degree north or south, from 0° to 90°.
  • One degree of latitude covers about 69 miles (111 kilometers)

LongitudeOne of the imaginary circles parallel to the Prime Meridian is called longitude.

  • The longitudes have their centers at the center of the earth and have same radius as the Earth.
  • Longitude is distance, measured in degrees, east or west of any fixed meridian.
  • Longitude is measured in degrees east or west of the prime meridian.
  • This means one half of the world is measured in degrees of east longitude up to 180°, and the other half in degrees of west longitude up to 180°.

Globe: The globe is a model of the earth, as it is, but in a very small and convenient form.

  • It shows all continents, countries and oceans, labeled.

Axis: The imaginary line about which the earth rotates once in 24 hours is called its axis.

PolesThe two extreme points of the axis are called the Poles.

  • One of them is the North Pole and the other is the South Pole.

Equator: The circle passing through the center of the earth, and perpendicular to the axis, is called the equator.

Prime Meridian: The circle passing through Greenwich in Britain, and perpendicular to the equator, and parallel to the axis, is called the Prime Meridian.

Heat Zones: Heat zones are the different zones of the earth, where the sun’s rays fall differently, thus causing different climate patterns.

  • These zones are called the Torrid Zone, the two Temperate Zones, and the two Frigid Zones.

Greenwich: Greenwich is a place in the United Kingdom, near London, whose time is used as a standard all over the world.

  • The Prime Meridian passes through this place, and so it is the place which divides the earth into the Eastern and the Western Hemispheres.

Standard Time:  Standard time of a country or region is the time regarded as a standard for that place, despite the fact that there exists time difference geographically across that region.

  • It is used only for convenience.

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