Important Rulers of Delhi sultanate
Qutubuddin Aibak (1206 to 1210 AD)
- He was a slave of Mohammad Ghori.
- He was the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Ghulam dynasty (Mamluk Sultanate) of India.
- He died while playing polo in Lahore.
- He built the Quwwat Al Islam mosque in Delhi and the Adhai-din-ka-Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer.
- He started the construction of Qutb Minar in Delhi, which is dedicated to a famous Sufi Saint of the time, Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki.
- He is also remembered as lakhbaksh or giver of lakhs, because of his generosity.
Iltutmish (1211–28 April 1236)
- He was the first to issue regular currency and declare Delhi as the capital of his empire.
- He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital – the two basic coins of the Sultanate period, with a standard weight of 175 grains.
- He introduced Iqtadari system: division of empire into Iqtas, which were assigned to the nobles and officers in lieu of salary.
- He built the Hauz-i-Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli in 1230.
- He completed the Qutub Minar started by Qutubuddin Aibak.
- Sultan Ghari which is considered the first Islamic Mausoleum in Delhi, was constructed by him in memory of his eldest son, Prince Nasiru’d-Din Mahmud.
- Genghis Khan, the Mongolian invader appeared for the first time on the banks of river Indus, during his reign.
- He was the longest serving Slave ruler who ruled for 25 years.
Razia Sultan (10 November 1236 – 14 October 1240 )
- Razia was the first lady to sit on the throne of Delhi.
- She succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1236.
Balban Reign (1266–1286)
- His original name was Baharuddin.
- He is considered the greatest Sultan of slave dynasty.
- He was a slave bought by Sultan Iltutmish.
- He introduced the Persian culture of Zaminbos that is lying flat on one’s face before the emperor.
- He adopted a policy of blood and iron against rebels, traitors and robbers.
- He got the title of Ulagh Khan for defeating the Mongols.
- He suppressed the rebellious tribe Meo, the people of Mewat who used to plunder the people of Delhi even in the day light.
- Balban ruled with an iron fist.
- He broke up the Chahalgani, a group of the forty most important nobles in the court.
Ala-ud-din Khilji (19 July 1296–4 January 1316)
- He was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty in India and is considered the most powerful ruler of the dynasty.
- He became the Sultan after murdering his uncle Jalaluddin Khilji.
- He established an effective espionage system to curb any revolt from his followers.
- He was the first Sultan to maintain a standing army.
- He was the first Sultan to conquer the Deccan.
- He created the third city of Delhi known as Siri.
- He is known for his economic reforms and price control system.
- Alauddin Khilji seized the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond from the ruler of Malwa.
Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq (8 September 1321 – February 1325)
- His original name was Ghazi Malik.
- He founded the city of Tughluqabad.
- He died when a pavilion built for him collapsed.
Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–20 March 1351)
- His original name was Jauna Khan.
- He introduced token currency using brass or copper coins backed by silver or gold in treasury.
- However, the measure lead to heavy losses to the treasury.
- He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri, which he renamed as Daulatabad, but as the plan failed he shifted back to Delhi.
- Ibn Batuta, the famous Moroccan traveler, visited him during his reign.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351– 20 September 1388)
- He was the son of a Hindu princess of Dipalpur.
- He is best known for the construction of a network of canals.
- He founded several cities, including Jaunpur, Firozpur, Firoz Shah Kotla and Hissar-Firoza.
- He rebuilt the top two floors of the Qutub Minar which were damaged by lightning in 1368 AD.
- One of his hunting lodges, Shikargah, also known as Kushak Mahal, is situated within the Teen Murti Bhavan complex, Delhi.
- Tughlaq Road in Delhi is named after him.
Sikandar Lodhi (17 July 1489 – 21 November 1517)
- He founded the modern city of Agra.
Ibrahim Lodhi (1517 – 21 April 1526)
- The last of Delhi Sultans, he was defeated and killed in the 1st Battle of Panipat against Babur in 1526.