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Important Amendments in Indian Constitution (Part-2)

Important Amendments in Indian Constitution (Part-2)

We are sharing Short notes on all Important Amendments in Indian Constitution. These notes are very important to many competitive exams like SSC CHSL, SSC CGL, SSC MTS, IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, IBPS SO, IPPB Sc. I, LIC AAO, etc.

Constitutional Amendments

♦ The Constitution of India is neither flexible nor rigid enough but it is a synthesis of both.

♦ Constitution of India (under article 368 of Part XX) provided the powers to Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedures but cannot amend those provisions which form the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution.

The Constitution can be amended in three ways:

  1. Amendment by simple majority of the Parliament.
  2. Amendment by special majority of the Parliament.
  3. Amendment by special majority of the Parliament and the ratification of half of the state legislature.

52th (1985)-Defection to another party after election made illegal.

61th (1989)-Voting age reduced from 21 to 18.

62nd (1989) – It provided for the extension by another 10 years of reservation of seats in the Parliament and State Assemblies for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes and reservation for Anglo Indian community by nomination.

63rd (1989)-It repealed Amendment 59 which empowered the government to impose emergency in Punjab.

64th (1990)-It extended the President’s rule in Punjab by six months.

66th (1990) – To bring land reforms within the purview of 9th Schedule of the Constitution.

69th (1991) – Delhi made National Capital Region. The Act also made provision for Legislative assembly and a council of ministers for Delhi.

70th (1992) – The amendment provides for inclusion of members of legislature of Pondicherry and Delhi.

71th (1992)-Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali added as languages in the Eighth Schedule.

73th (1993)-Introduction of Panchayati Raj, addition of Part IX to the Constitution.

74th (1993)-Introduction of Nagarpalikas and Municipalities.

75th (1994) – It provides for setting up of State-level Rent Tribunals to exclude the jurisdiction of all courts, except that of the Supreme Court, under Article 136 of the Constitution.

76th (1994) – It relates to the Reservation of Seats in Educational Institutes and of appointments or posts in the Services under a State, for Backward Classes, SC and ST.

77th (1995) – According to this Act, the Government have decided to continue the existing policy of reservation in promotion for the SC and ST.

78th (1995) – It includes land reform laws in the Ninth Schedule so that they cannot be challenged before the courts.

79th (1999) – It extends the reservation of seats for SC, ST and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for next 10 years.

80th (2000) – It deals with an alternative scheme for sharing taxes between the Union and the States.

81st (2000) – It provides that the unfilled vacancies of a year reserved for SC/ST kept for being filled up in a year as per Article 16, shall be considered separately for filling vacancies in the succeeding year and the previous list will not be considered for filling the 50% quota of the respective year.

82nd (2000) – It provides that nothing in the Article 355 shall prevent the State from making any provisions in favour of the members of SC/ST for relaxation in qualifying marks with respect to examination/job/promotion.

83rd (2000) – The Act amended Article 243 M to provide that no reservation in Panchayats be made in favour of SC/ST in Arunachal Pradesh where the whole population is tribal.

84th (2001) – Extended ban on readjustment of seats in the Lok Sabha and the state legislature assemblies for another 25 years (i.e., up to 2026) with same objective of encouraging population limiting measures.

85th (2001) – Provided for ‘consequential seniority’ in the case of promotion by the virtue of rule of reservation for the government servants belonging to the SCs and STs with retrospective effect from June 1995.

86th (2002)-Free and compulsory education to children between 6 and 14 years.

92th (2003)-Bodo, Dogri, Santhali and Maithli added to the list of recognized languages. Service Tax introduced.

96th (2011)-Substituted Odia for Oriya in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution

97th (2012)-Introduction of Part IXB in the Constitution pertaining to Co-operative Societies

101th (2016)-Introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST)

 

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