Geography Notes on Type of Forests

Geography Notes on Type of Forests

SSC CGL Geography Study Notes. Types of Forests in India and the Natural Vegetation of India for SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, MTS, Railway Exam Preparation.

Important Points:

✦ As per the Indian state forest report the total forest and tree cover in India is 79.42 million hectares.

✦ Out of total geographical area of India, area covered by forests is 24.16 percent.

✦ India has been trying to achieve to put 33 per cent of its geographical area under forest.

✦ Between 2013 and 2015 The forest cover has increased by 5081 square kilometers in India.

✦ Among all the states MP has the largest forest cover in India followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha.

✦ State having highest forest cover as % of its area: Mizoram (88.93 per cent).

✦ Out of total are covered by forests in India, the maximum share is of Moderate Dense Forests, followed by Open Forests.

✦ Lakshadweep Island has zero per cent forest area where as Andaman and Nicobar Islands have 86.93 per cent.

✦ India is one of the top ten countries in the world in terms of forest area.

State having maximum proportion of forests:

  • Geographical area under dense forest cover – Arunachal Pradesh
  • State having lowest area under forest cover – Haryana
  • State having largest area under forest cover – Madhya Pradesh

Type of Forests

Evergreen Forests (Tropical)

  • Found in areas where rainfall ranges between 200 and 300 cm, e.g., Western Ghats and sub-Himalayan regions.
  • These are coniferous forests with trees having needle-shaped leaves and provide teak, rosewood, ebony and bamboo.

Deciduous Forests (Monsoon Forests)

  • Found in areas having rainfall between 150 and 200 cm, e.g., parts of Deccan Plateau stretching across Maharashtra, MP and Karnataka.
  • They provide fine timber such as teak, sal. sandalwood, etc.

Dry Forests

  • Found in desert regions of Rajasthan and south of Punjab, where rainfall is below 75-100 cm.

Hill Forests / Mountain Forests

  • Found in southern India and in the Himalayan regions and provide timber.
  • Oak, deodar, pines, chir, are major trees found in these forests.

Tidal Forests (Mangrove)

  • Found in coastal plains which are generally submerged, particularly on river deltas on the east coast (Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari).
  • The forests on the Gangetic delta in Bengal are called Sunderbans after the Sundari trees found in these forests.

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