Geography Notes on Land forms Created by River In this article we will discuss about various type of Land-form created due the effect of River system and Glacier system. This is an important topic of geography and question generally comes from this topic. Land-form Created by river system: Potholes: \tPotholes are cylindrical holes drilled into the\u00a0bed of a river that vary in depth & diameter from a few centimeters to several meters. \tThese are formed due to the\u00a0whirling impact\u00a0of the water current in the upper course of the river. \t\u00a0These currents erode the river\u2019s bed and create small depressions in it. \tMany potholes are observed in the river bed of the Kukadi, Krishna and Godavari river in Maharashtra. V-Shaped valley: \tThese valleys are found in the mountainous regions. \tV-Shaped valleys are found in the\u00a0upper course\u00a0of the river and are a result of both\u00a0erosion\u00a0by the river and weathering. \tV-Shaped valleys are deep river valleys with steep sides that look like a letter V. \tA deep and narrow valley with steep sides is called a\u00a0Gorge. \tMany gorge are found in river Ulhas in Thane district in Maharashtra and the gorge of the river Narmada at Bhedaghat near Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh are well known. Waterfalls (Geological): \tWaterfalls are formed due to erosion of both hard rock and soft rock. \t\u00a0As the river flows over the resistant rock, it falls onto the less resistant rock, eroding it and creating a greater height difference between the two rock types, producing the\u00a0waterfall. \tOver thousands of years, the repeated collapse of the cap rock and retreat of the waterfall produces a gorge of recession. \tThe Niagara Falls on the river Niagara and Jog falls in Karnataka on\u00a0Sharavathi\u00a0river\u00a0are famous waterfalls. Meanders and Ox-bow lakes: \tMeanders are\u00a0bends\u00a0in a river that form as a river\u2019s sinuosity increases. \tThe\u00a0sinuosity\u00a0of a river is a measurement of how much a river varies from a straight line. \tMeanders are formed due to\u00a0lateral erosion\u00a0and as the erosion increases over the period of time, the meanders in the river again start flowing in the straight line. \tOxbow\u00a0lakes are an evolution of meanders that undergo extensive deposition and erosion \tWhen the meanders cut from the main course and water accumulates in this pool then it resembles the shape of the ox bow. Fan shaped plains: \t\u00a0These are formed in the region where the\u00a0Tributaries Rivers\u00a0joins the main river. \tThese are formed due to the deposition of material carried by the Tributaries Rivers. \tThis deposition resembles the shape a Fan like plains. Flood Plains: \tThese are formed due to the\u00a0overflows\u00a0of the river and\u00a0flood\u00a0in the nearby areas. \tSlit\u00a0carried by the water gets deposited in flooded areas and formed flat plains on both sides of river. \tThe\u00a0Gangetic plain\u00a0is a flood plain. Levees: \tLevees are natural embankments\u00a0produced, ironically, when a river floods. \tWhen a river floods, it deposits its load over the flood plain due to a dramatic drop in the river\u2019s velocity as friction increases greatly. \tRepeated floods cause the\u00a0mounds\u00a0to build up and form levees. Delta: \tDelta is a terms coined by\u00a0Herodotus after the Greek letter Delta because of the deltoid shaped at the mouth of the Nile river. \tDeltas are\u00a0depositional landforms\u00a0found at the mouth of a river where the river meets a body of water with a lower velocity than the river. \tOver the period of time this deposition builds the characteristic geographic pattern of a river delta. \tSunderbans\u00a0delta of the Ganga River is the largest in the world.