Factors Affecting Indian Climate
Factors affecting the Climate of India. This article has covered Factors affecting the Climate of India, which is very useful for competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
Latitude or Distance from the Equator
- The average temperature for the year drops as you go away from the equator.
- In India, the southern part lies in the tropical belt closer to the equator.
- Therefore, this region has higher average temperature than the northern part.
- The part south of the tropic of cancer lies in the tropical zone.
- The part north of the Tropic of cancer lies in the temperate zone.
- The Himalayas play an important role in lending a sub-tropical touch to the climate of India.
- The lofty Himalaya Mountains form a barrier which effects the climate of India.
- It prevents the cold winds of north Asia from blowing into India, thus protecting it from severely cold winters.
- It also traps the Monsoon winds, forcing them to shed their moisture within the sub-continent.
- Temperature decreases with height.
- Places in the mountains are cooler than places on the plains.
Distance from the sea
- With a long coastline, large coastal areas have an equable climate.
- Areas in the interior of India are far away from the moderating influence of the sea.
- Such areas have extremes of climate.
Direction of Surface Winds
- The wind system also affects the Indian climate.
- This system consists of monsoon winds, land and sea breeze, and local winds.
- In winter the winds blow from land to sea so they are cold and dry.
- In summer wind blow from sea to land bringing the moisture along with them from the sea and they cause wide spread rain in most part of the country.
El-Nino & La Nina
- Weather conditions in India are also influenced by El-Nino which causes wide spread floods and droughts in tropical regions of the world.
- This warming of tropical Pacific waters affects the global pattern of pressure and wind systems including the monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean.
- It is believed that the severest droughts in India have been caused by El-Nino.
- La Nina is thought to be favourable to India as it brings rains.