Factors Affecting Indian Climate

Factors Affecting Indian Climate

Factors affecting the Climate of India. This article has covered Factors affecting the Climate of India, which is very useful for competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

Latitude or Distance from the Equator

  • The average temperature for the year drops as you go away from the equator.
  • In India, the southern part lies in the tropical belt closer to the equator.
  • Therefore, this region has higher average temperature than the northern part.
  • The part south of the tropic of cancer lies in the tropical zone.
  • The part north of the Tropic of cancer lies in the temperate zone.

Himalaya Mountains

  • The Himalayas play an important role in lending a sub-tropical touch to the climate of India.
  • The lofty Himalaya Mountains form a barrier which effects the climate of India.
  • It prevents the cold winds of north Asia from blowing into India, thus protecting it from severely cold winters.
  • It also traps the Monsoon winds, forcing them to shed their moisture within the sub-continent.


  • Temperature decreases with height.
  • Places in the mountains are cooler than places on the plains.

Distance from the sea

  • With a long coastline, large coastal areas have an equable climate.
  • Areas in the interior of India are far away from the moderating influence of the sea.
  • Such areas have extremes of climate.

Direction of Surface Winds

  • The wind system also affects the Indian climate.
  • This system consists of monsoon winds, land and sea breeze, and local winds.
  • In winter the winds blow from land to sea so they are cold and dry.
  • In summer wind blow from sea to land bringing the moisture along with them from the sea and they cause wide spread rain in most part of the country.

El-Nino & La Nina

  • Weather conditions in India are also influenced by El-Nino which causes wide spread floods and droughts in tropical regions of the world.
  • This warming of tropical Pacific waters affects the global pattern of pressure and wind systems including the monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean.
  • It  is  believed  that  the  severest  droughts in  India  have been caused  by  El-Nino.
  • La Nina is thought to be favourable to India as it brings rains.

Related Posts:

Latitude, Longitude And Time Zones

Geography Notes: Causes of Earthquake

Geography Notes: Types of Rainfall

Major Cropping Seasons in India

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