Delhi Sultanate: Khilji Dynasty (1290 – 1320)

Delhi Sultanate: Khilji Dynasty (1290 – 1320)

Get Important SSC GK History Notes on Delhi Sultanate Khilji Dynasty for SSC, BANK, RAILWAY and other Exams Preparation.

Jalal-ud-din Firuz Khilji (1290-1296)

1. He came to the throne at the age of seventy and ruled for six years, but did not dare to sit on the throne of Balban whom he had served earlier. He made Kilokhari as his capital.

2. He adopted a conciliatory policy towards the nobles of earlier regime and even the Mongols. So, he appointed Malik Chajju as the Governor of Kara, but he rebelled later.

3. After his successful campaign, Ali Gurshasp invited the Sultan to Kara to receive the enormous wealth.

4. Jalaluddin came to Kara in July 1296, where he was murdered by Ali Gurshasp, who proclaimed himself the Sultan with the title of Alauddin.

Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316)

1. He was the greatest ruler of the Khilji Dynasty and was the first Muslim ruler to extend his empire right up to the extreme South of India.

2. He lavishly distributed money and gold among his people, noble and ministers so that they might forget the murder of Jalal-ud-din and support him.

3. He was the first ruler of Delhi Sultanate who did not ask for manshur (letter of investiture) from the Caliph but called himself the deputy of the Caliph.

4. He concentrated all power of the state in his own hands; therefore, the period marked the zenith of despotic government as well.

5. Alauddin Khilji is said to have been poisoned by Malik Kafur. He died in January 1316.

6. During the early years of the reign of Alauddin, the Mongols invaded the sultanate several times and even plundered Delhi and adjoining districts, but they were always defeated.

7. He adopted “blood and iron” policy of Balban in tackling the Mongol menace. So, he built a protecting wall around Delhi and repaired the old forts on the route of Mongols.

8. Strong military consignments were posted at Samana and Dipalpur.

9. Increased the numerical strength of an army. Appointed to his trusted commanders, including Ghazi Malik (later Sultan Ghiyassudin Tughluq), as warden of the North Western marches.

Reforms and Experiments

Economic Reforms (1304)

  • The most important experiment undertaken by him was the attempt to control the markets.
  • He sought to control the prices of all commodities, from food grains to horse, and from cattle and slaves to costly imported cloth.
  • Introduction of Dagh or branding of horses Chehra or detailed description of each soldier
  • Confiscation of the religious endowments and free grants of lands
  • Creation of new department viz Diwan-i-Mustakhraj to enquire into the revenue areas and to collect them
  • Establishment of separate markets for food grains cloth, horses, fruits etc

Administrative Reforms

  • Reorganised the Spy system.
  • Prohibition on use of wine in Delhi.
  • Nobles should not intermarry without his permission.
  • Confiscated the properties of Nobles classes.
  • He separated religion from politics. He proclaimed -Kingship knows no Kinship.

Military Reforms

  • Abolition of Iqtas of royal troppers and the payment of their salaries in crash.
  • Regular muster of the army.
  • He was the first sultan to have permanent army-paid soldiers in cash, imported horses.

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