Complete Gandhian Era in 5 Minutes

Complete Gandhian Era in 5 Minutes

SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, MTS, Railway Exam Preparation. Competitive Exams History notes on freedom struggle by Mahatma Gandhi.

Facts about Mahatma Gandhi:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on 2 October 1869.

He studied law in England.

He returned to India in 1891.

In April 1893 he went to South Africa and involved himself in the struggle against apartheid for twenty years. He returned to India in 1914.

In India (1915–48)

1915: Arrived in Bombay (India) on 9 January 1915.

Foundation of Satyagraha Ashrama at Kocharab near Ahmedabad (20 May).

Later, Ashrama shifted at the banks of Sabarmati.

1916: Abstain from active politics.

1917: Gandhi entered active politics with Champaran campaign to redress grievances of the cultivators oppressed by Indigo planter of Bihar.

Champaran Satyagraha was his first Civil Disobedience Movement in India.

1918: In Febuary 1918, Gandhi launched the struggle in Ahmedabad which involved industrial workers.

Hunger strike as a weapon was used for the first time by Gandhi during Ahmedabad struggle.

In March 1918, Gandhi worked for peasants of Kheda in Gujarat who were facing difficulties in paying the rent owing to failure of crops.

Kheda Satyagraha was his first Noncooperation Movement.

1919: Gandhi gave a call for Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act on April 6, 1919 and took the command of the nationalist movement for the first time.

Gandhi returns Kaisar-i-Hind gold medal as a protest against Jallianwala Bagh massacre-April 13, 1919.

The All India Khilafat Conference elected Gandhi as its president (November 1919, Delhi).

1920–22: Gandhi leads the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movement.

Gandhi calls off Movement (Feb. 12, 1922), after the violent incident at Chauri- Chaura on Febuary 5, 1922.

Non-Co-operation Movement was the First mass based politics under Gandhi.

1924: Belgaum (Karnataka) session of INC–for the first and the last time Gandhi was elected the president of the Congress.

1925–27 Gandhi retires from active politics for the first time and devotes himself to ‘constructive programme of the Congress.

1927: Gandhi resumes active politics.

1930–34: Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience Movement with his Dandhi march/Salt Satyagraha.

1934 – 39: Sets up Sevagram (Vardha Ashram).

1940 – 41: Gandhi launches Individual Satyagraha Movement.

1942: Call to Quit India Movement for which Gandhi raised the slogan, ‘Do or Die’.

Gandhi and all Congress leaders arrested (August 9, 1942).

1942–44: Gandhi kept in detention at the Aga Khan Palace, near Pune (August 9, 1942–May, 1944).

Gandhi lost his wife Kasturba (Febuary 22, 1944) and private secretary Mahadev Desai.

This was Gandhi’s last prison term.

1946: Deeply distressed by theory of communal violence, as a result Muslim League’s Direct Action call, Gandhi travelled to Noakhali (East Bengal-now Bangladesh) and later on to Calcutta to restore communal peace.

1947: Gandhi, deeply distressed by the Mountbatten Plan/Partition Plan, while staying in Calcutta to restore communal violence, observes complete silence on the dawn of India’s Independence (August, 15, 1947).

Gandhi returns to Delhi (September 1947).

1948: Gandhi was shot dead by Nathu Ram Godse, while on his way to the evening prayer meeting at Birla House, New Delhi (January 30, 1948).

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