Complete Gandhian Era in 5 Minutes
SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, MTS, Railway Exam Preparation. Competitive Exams History notes on freedom struggle by Mahatma Gandhi.
Facts about Mahatma Gandhi:
→ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on 2 October 1869.
→ He studied law in England.
→ He returned to India in 1891.
→ In April 1893 he went to South Africa and involved himself in the struggle against apartheid for twenty years. He returned to India in 1914.
In India (1915–48)
1915: Arrived in Bombay (India) on 9 January 1915.
→ Foundation of Satyagraha Ashrama at Kocharab near Ahmedabad (20 May).
→ Later, Ashrama shifted at the banks of Sabarmati.
1916: Abstain from active politics.
1917: Gandhi entered active politics with Champaran campaign to redress grievances of the cultivators oppressed by Indigo planter of Bihar.
→ Champaran Satyagraha was his first Civil Disobedience Movement in India.
1918: In Febuary 1918, Gandhi launched the struggle in Ahmedabad which involved industrial workers.
→ Hunger strike as a weapon was used for the first time by Gandhi during Ahmedabad struggle.
→ In March 1918, Gandhi worked for peasants of Kheda in Gujarat who were facing difficulties in paying the rent owing to failure of crops.
→ Kheda Satyagraha was his first Noncooperation Movement.
1919: Gandhi gave a call for Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act on April 6, 1919 and took the command of the nationalist movement for the first time.
→ Gandhi returns Kaisar-i-Hind gold medal as a protest against Jallianwala Bagh massacre-April 13, 1919.
→ The All India Khilafat Conference elected Gandhi as its president (November 1919, Delhi).
1920–22: Gandhi leads the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movement.
→ Gandhi calls off Movement (Feb. 12, 1922), after the violent incident at Chauri- Chaura on Febuary 5, 1922.
→ Non-Co-operation Movement was the First mass based politics under Gandhi.
1924: Belgaum (Karnataka) session of INC–for the first and the last time Gandhi was elected the president of the Congress.
→ 1925–27 Gandhi retires from active politics for the first time and devotes himself to ‘constructive programme of the Congress.
1927: Gandhi resumes active politics.
1930–34: Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience Movement with his Dandhi march/Salt Satyagraha.
1934 – 39: Sets up Sevagram (Vardha Ashram).
1940 – 41: Gandhi launches Individual Satyagraha Movement.
1942: Call to Quit India Movement for which Gandhi raised the slogan, ‘Do or Die’.
→ Gandhi and all Congress leaders arrested (August 9, 1942).
1942–44: Gandhi kept in detention at the Aga Khan Palace, near Pune (August 9, 1942–May, 1944).
→ Gandhi lost his wife Kasturba (Febuary 22, 1944) and private secretary Mahadev Desai.
→ This was Gandhi’s last prison term.
1946: Deeply distressed by theory of communal violence, as a result Muslim League’s Direct Action call, Gandhi travelled to Noakhali (East Bengal-now Bangladesh) and later on to Calcutta to restore communal peace.
1947: Gandhi, deeply distressed by the Mountbatten Plan/Partition Plan, while staying in Calcutta to restore communal violence, observes complete silence on the dawn of India’s Independence (August, 15, 1947).
→ Gandhi returns to Delhi (September 1947).
1948: Gandhi was shot dead by Nathu Ram Godse, while on his way to the evening prayer meeting at Birla House, New Delhi (January 30, 1948).