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Biology : Human Diseases

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Introduction : – A disease is a particular abnormal condition that affect, part of all of an organism not caused by external force and that consist of a disorder of a structure or function. Usually serving as an evolutionary disadvantage.

  • The study of disease is called pathology.
  • Diseases are classified in 3 types

Types of Disease

  1. Viral disease
  2. Bacterial disease
  3. Protozoan disease
  4. Fungal disease
  5. Viral Diseases : – Diseases which are caused by virus.
  • First discovered virus is tobacco mosaic virus.
  • In 1892 Ivanoski discovered virus on Tobacco leaf.
  • Study of virus is known as virology.
  • Viruses are a cellular in nature.
  • Genetic material of virus is covered by protein coat that is called capsid.

Diseases caused by Virus: –

  1. AIDS : – Acquired Immuno deficiency syndrome.

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Cause:HIV (Human Immuno deficiency virus) is the main cause of AIDS disease.

Affected organ:– WBC (white blood corpuscles)

Symptoms–Immune system of the body became very weak.

Route of transmission –

  1. Infected springe
  2. Blood transfusion
  3. By contacting with an infected person directly.
  • Test of HIV virus (AIDS) IS ELISA TEST.
  • HIV has single stranded RNA as the genetic material.
  • AIDS virus destroys T- Lymphocyte cells.
  1. Dengue Fever :-

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–  Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses. That is transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue fever is transmitted by the vector Aedesaegypte.

Symptoms: – Muscle pain, Headache, Fever, rashes, pain in joints and swollen lymph nodes.

Affected organ : – Whole body particularly head, eyes and joints.

Prevention: – Prevention of Dengue fever requires control or eradication of the mosquitoes carrying the virus that causes dengue.

  • Papaya leaf extract can be used to treat dengue fever.
  • Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)is a specific syndrome that tends to affect children under 10 years of age. This complication of dengue causes abdominal pain, hemorrhage (bleeding) and circulatory collapse (shock)
  • A Vaccine for dengue fever wax approved in April 2016 for use in dengue-endemic areas.
  • Dengue is caused by dengue virus.
  1. Polio:

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  • Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes never injury leading to paralysis, difficulty in breathing and sometimes death.
  • In the U. S. the last case of naturally occurring polio was in 1979. Today, despite a world wide effort to wipe out polio, poliovirus continues to affect children and adults in parts of Asia Africa

VirusPolio Virus

Symptoms:Fever, body pain, Backbone and intestine cells are destroyed, Headache, Vomiting, fatigue, sore throat.

Affected organ :Backbone nerve, throat

Prevention :The Most effective way to prevent polio is Vaccination.

  • First polio vaccine is discovered by Jonas Edward Salk.
  1. Influenza (flu):

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Caused by–Influenza virus or mixo virus.

Symptoms – runny nose, high fever, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing and feeling tired.

  • These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the Virus and most last less than a week.
  • Affected organ – Whole body

Prevention : –  Hand washing, Surgical mask, Influenza Vaccine

  • In influenza The Virus is spread through the air from coughs or sneezes.
  • It is also known as bullet disease because it spread very fast.
  1. Chicken pox: –

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  • Chickenpox, also called varicella, is characterized by itchy red blister that appears all over the body.
  • It’s very rare to have chicken pox infection more than once. But it can happen 2nd time also in life.
  • The infection will have to be in your body for around 7 to 21 days. Before the rash and other symptoms develop.

Caused by – varicella zoster virus (UZV)

Symptoms – High fever, radish eruption on body.

  • Virus can be spread through: –
  1. Contact with an infected person.
  2. Saliva
  3. Coughing
  4. Sneezing
  5. Contact with fluid from blister.

Affected organ : – whole body

  • The chickenpox vaccine prevents chickenpox in 98% of people who receive the two recommended doses. Your child should shout get shot when they are between 12 to 15 months of age.
  • People unable to receive the vaccine can try to avoid the virus by limiting contact with infected people.
  • In this disease herbal acts as anti-micro bacterial.
  1. Small pox :-

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  • Caused by – Variola Virus.

Early symptoms:- Fever, vomiting, mouth sores

  • Early symptoms : –
  • Later symptoms : – Fluid filled blisters which scab over.

Prevention : – Small Pox vaccine.

Affected Organ :- Whole body

  • Small pox vaccine is discovered by Edward Jenner in 1798.
  • Small pox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated the world in 1980.
  • It’s last case was seen in 1977.
  • It spread from one person to another.
  • The vaccination against pox involves the introduction of weakened germs.
  1. Goiter :-  A goiter (GOI-tur) is an abnormal enlargement of thyroid gland. Your neck just below your Adam’s apple.

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  • Although goiters are usually painless, a large goiter can cause a cough and make it difficult for you to swallow or breathe.
  • World wide, over 90% of goiter cases are caused by Iodine deficiency.

Affected organ: – Parathyroid gland.

Cause – Most common cause for goiter is Iodine deficiency. Selenium deficiency is also considered a contributing factor

Symptoms:- Difficulty in opening the mouth with fever.

Treatment : –

  • If thyroid gland producing too much T3 and T4, radioactive Iodine is given to the patient to shrink the gland.
  • If goiter caused by Iodine deficiency. Small doses of Iodine in the form Lugol’s Iodine or K & Solution are given.
  • Measles : – measles is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus.
  • Morbillivirus – is the main cause of measles disease.

Affected organ: – Whole body

Symptoms :- Fever (often greater than ), spots may form inside the mouth, A red flat rash which usually starts on the face and then spread rest part of the body.

Duration – 7 – 10 days.

Prevention : – Measles vaccine.

8. Rabies : – Rabies is a deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals. The rabies virus is usually transmitted through a bite.

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Animals most likely to transmit rabies – (vector)

Ex.       (1) Dog

(2) Fox

(c) Bots

(c) Jackal

(d) wolf

Affected organ : – Nervous system.

Symptoms:- Fever, Nausea, vomiting, Agitation, Anxiety, Hyperactivity, fear of water (Hydrophobia) because of difficulty in swallowing, Insomnia, Hallucination. Partial Paralysis.

Prevention : – Vaccination by ARV injection (Anti Rabies Vaccine)

  • In this disease nearly always death happen. It is more fatal disease.
  • The vaccine of Rabies was discovered by Louis Pasteur.

9. Mumps : –

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  • Mumps is mainly disease of children. Mumps is a highly contagious and spreads rapidly among those living in close quarters.
  • The virus is transmitted by respiratory droplets or direct contact with a infected person.

Virus – Paramyxo virus is the cause of mumps disease

Symptoms : – Fever, muscles pain, headache, feeling tired, Infertility (Males).

Duration – 7 – 10 days

Prevention – Vaccination

10. Swine flu : –

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  • It is also know as the pig influenza or disease of pig. Which transmit into human from pig.

Affected organ :-  Virus attacks deep into the lungs.

Symptoms : – Fever, Lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty in breathing and decreased appetite

  • In this Disease Primary host is pig and 2nd host is human

Prevention : –  A vaccine has been produced to protect humans against the  strain of swine flu. In 2009 and 2010

11. Ebola Fever : – Also known as Ebola hemorrhagic Fever (EFH)

Affected organ : – platelets cells

Courses – Ebola virus spread by pig and fruit bat.

Symptoms – Fever, sore throat, Muscular pain, headache, diarrhea, bleeding.

Prevention – Careful handling of bush meat me from non domesticated mammals, reptiles etc., use protective clothing’s including masks, gloves, goggles. Etc.

  • Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976.
  • Ebola spreads through human to human via direct contact.

12. Zika fever:

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Caused by – Zika virus

Vector – Adese Ejepty

Symptoms – Most cases have no symptoms but when present they usually resemble with dengue fever including – fever, red eyes, joint pain

Duration – Less than a week.

Prevention –  By decreasing mosquito bites.

  • In Zika fever Infants are effected body.
  • The disease caused by Zika virus is Microcephaly.




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