Biology : Human Diseases
Introduction : – A disease is a particular abnormal condition that affect, part of all of an organism not caused by external force and that consist of a disorder of a structure or function. Usually serving as an evolutionary disadvantage.
- The study of disease is called pathology.
- Diseases are classified in 3 types
Types of Disease
- Viral disease
- Bacterial disease
- Protozoan disease
- Fungal disease
- Viral Diseases : – Diseases which are caused by virus.
- First discovered virus is tobacco mosaic virus.
- In 1892 Ivanoski discovered virus on Tobacco leaf.
- Study of virus is known as virology.
- Viruses are a cellular in nature.
- Genetic material of virus is covered by protein coat that is called capsid.
Diseases caused by Virus: –
- AIDS : – Acquired Immuno deficiency syndrome.
Cause: – HIV (Human Immuno deficiency virus) is the main cause of AIDS disease.
Affected organ:– WBC (white blood corpuscles)
Symptoms–Immune system of the body became very weak.
Route of transmission –
- Infected springe
- Blood transfusion
- By contacting with an infected person directly.
- Test of HIV virus (AIDS) IS ELISA TEST.
- HIV has single stranded RNA as the genetic material.
- AIDS virus destroys T- Lymphocyte cells.
Dengue Fever :-
– Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses. That is transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue fever is transmitted by the vector Aedesaegypte.
Symptoms: – Muscle pain, Headache, Fever, rashes, pain in joints and swollen lymph nodes.
Affected organ : – Whole body particularly head, eyes and joints.
Prevention: – Prevention of Dengue fever requires control or eradication of the mosquitoes carrying the virus that causes dengue.
- Papaya leaf extract can be used to treat dengue fever.
- Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)is a specific syndrome that tends to affect children under 10 years of age. This complication of dengue causes abdominal pain, hemorrhage (bleeding) and circulatory collapse (shock)
- A Vaccine for dengue fever wax approved in April 2016 for use in dengue-endemic areas.
- Dengue is caused by dengue virus.
- Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes never injury leading to paralysis, difficulty in breathing and sometimes death.
- In the U. S. the last case of naturally occurring polio was in 1979. Today, despite a world wide effort to wipe out polio, poliovirus continues to affect children and adults in parts of Asia Africa
Virus – Polio Virus
Symptoms:Fever, body pain, Backbone and intestine cells are destroyed, Headache, Vomiting, fatigue, sore throat.
Affected organ : – Backbone nerve, throat
Prevention :The Most effective way to prevent polio is Vaccination.
- First polio vaccine is discovered by Jonas Edward Salk.
Influenza (flu): –
Caused by–Influenza virus or mixo virus.
Symptoms – runny nose, high fever, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing and feeling tired.
- These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the Virus and most last less than a week.
- Affected organ – Whole body
Prevention : – Hand washing, Surgical mask, Influenza Vaccine
- In influenza The Virus is spread through the air from coughs or sneezes.
- It is also known as bullet disease because it spread very fast.
Chicken pox: –
- Chickenpox, also called varicella, is characterized by itchy red blister that appears all over the body.
- It’s very rare to have chicken pox infection more than once. But it can happen 2nd time also in life.
- The infection will have to be in your body for around 7 to 21 days. Before the rash and other symptoms develop.
Caused by – varicella zoster virus (UZV)
Symptoms – High fever, radish eruption on body.
- Virus can be spread through: –
- Contact with an infected person.
- Contact with fluid from blister.
Affected organ : – whole body
- The chickenpox vaccine prevents chickenpox in 98% of people who receive the two recommended doses. Your child should shout get shot when they are between 12 to 15 months of age.
- People unable to receive the vaccine can try to avoid the virus by limiting contact with infected people.
- In this disease herbal acts as anti-micro bacterial.
Small pox :-
- Caused by – Variola Virus.
Early symptoms:- Fever, vomiting, mouth sores
- Early symptoms : –
- Later symptoms : – Fluid filled blisters which scab over.
Prevention : – Small Pox vaccine.
Affected Organ :- Whole body
- Small pox vaccine is discovered by Edward Jenner in 1798.
- Small pox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated the world in 1980.
- It’s last case was seen in 1977.
- It spread from one person to another.
- The vaccination against pox involves the introduction of weakened germs.
- Goiter :- A goiter (GOI-tur) is an abnormal enlargement of thyroid gland. Your neck just below your Adam’s apple.
- Although goiters are usually painless, a large goiter can cause a cough and make it difficult for you to swallow or breathe.
- World wide, over 90% of goiter cases are caused by Iodine deficiency.
Affected organ: – Parathyroid gland.
Cause – Most common cause for goiter is Iodine deficiency. Selenium deficiency is also considered a contributing factor
Symptoms:- Difficulty in opening the mouth with fever.
Treatment : –
- If thyroid gland producing too much T3 and T4, radioactive Iodine is given to the patient to shrink the gland.
- If goiter caused by Iodine deficiency. Small doses of Iodine in the form Lugol’s Iodine or K & Solution are given.
- Measles : – measles is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus.
- Morbillivirus – is the main cause of measles disease.
Affected organ: – Whole body
Symptoms :- Fever (often greater than ), spots may form inside the mouth, A red flat rash which usually starts on the face and then spread rest part of the body.
Duration – 7 – 10 days.
Prevention : – Measles vaccine.
8. Rabies : – Rabies is a deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals. The rabies virus is usually transmitted through a bite.
Animals most likely to transmit rabies – (vector)
Ex. (1) Dog
Affected organ : – Nervous system.
Symptoms:- Fever, Nausea, vomiting, Agitation, Anxiety, Hyperactivity, fear of water (Hydrophobia) because of difficulty in swallowing, Insomnia, Hallucination. Partial Paralysis.
Prevention : – Vaccination by ARV injection (Anti Rabies Vaccine)
- In this disease nearly always death happen. It is more fatal disease.
- The vaccine of Rabies was discovered by Louis Pasteur.
9. Mumps : –
- Mumps is mainly disease of children. Mumps is a highly contagious and spreads rapidly among those living in close quarters.
- The virus is transmitted by respiratory droplets or direct contact with a infected person.
Virus – Paramyxo virus is the cause of mumps disease
Symptoms : – Fever, muscles pain, headache, feeling tired, Infertility (Males).
Duration – 7 – 10 days
Prevention – Vaccination
10. Swine flu : –
- It is also know as the pig influenza or disease of pig. Which transmit into human from pig.
Affected organ :- Virus attacks deep into the lungs.
Symptoms : – Fever, Lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty in breathing and decreased appetite
- In this Disease Primary host is pig and 2nd host is human
Prevention : – A vaccine has been produced to protect humans against the strain of swine flu. In 2009 and 2010
11. Ebola Fever : – Also known as Ebola hemorrhagic Fever (EFH)
Affected organ : – platelets cells
Courses – Ebola virus spread by pig and fruit bat.
Symptoms – Fever, sore throat, Muscular pain, headache, diarrhea, bleeding.
Prevention – Careful handling of bush meat me from non domesticated mammals, reptiles etc., use protective clothing’s including masks, gloves, goggles. Etc.
- Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976.
- Ebola spreads through human to human via direct contact.
12. Zika fever: –
Caused by – Zika virus
Vector – Adese Ejepty
Symptoms – Most cases have no symptoms but when present they usually resemble with dengue fever including – fever, red eyes, joint pain
Duration – Less than a week.
Prevention – By decreasing mosquito bites.
- In Zika fever Infants are effected body.
- The disease caused by Zika virus is Microcephaly.