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Ancient History : Vedic Age [1500BC – 600 BC]

Image result for vedic ageOrigin:-

  • Original home of the Aryans still is a controversial point.
  • According to popular belief, Aryans are supposed to have migrated from central Asia – and salted in the present Frontier Province and the Punjab – then Called “Sapt Sindhu” i.e. Region of 7 rivers.

Vedic Literature  [1500BC – 600 BC ]: –

  • Important Vedic productions are : –
  1. The Samhitas or The Vedas
  2. The Brahamans
  3. The Aranyakas
  4. The Upanishadas

1. There are 4 types of Vedas: –

1. Rig Veda: [collection of Lyrics]

  • Also known as “1st testament of mankind”
  • It contains 1028 Hymns and 10, 580 yeses divided into 10 Manadals.
  • The 1st and 10th mandalas are said to be added later.
  • The 10th mandala contains “Purushasukta” which explains 4 varnas namely
  1. Brahmana
  2. Kshatriya
  3. Vaishya
  4. Sudra
  • The hymns of Rig veda were recited by “Hotri”.

2. Sama Veda:- (Books of chats)

  • This veda is important for Indian music and had 1549 verses.
  • Except 75 verses, all other are taken from Rig-Veda.
  • The hymns of SamaVeda were recited by “Udgatri”.

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3. Yajur Veda:- [Books of Sacrificial Prayers]

  • Rig Veda & Sama Veda are in “Verse” only whereas Yajur Veda is in both verse and “Prose”
  • It is devided in 2 pats

(a) Krishna Yajur Veda
(b) Shukla Yajur Veda

 

  • The hymns of Yajur Veda were recited by “Adhvaryus”.

4. Atharva Veda : – [Book of magical formulae]

  • It was included in the category of Vedas at a later stage.
  • It contains charms and spells to prevent us from evils and diseases.

2. The Brahamans : –

  • It explains the hymns of the Vedas
  • It is written in prose and is ritualistic in nature
  • Brahma means “Sacrifice’.
  • Various rituals & sacrifices have been discussed in Brahamanas

3. The Aranyakas :

  • Aranya menas “The forest”.
  • The “Forest test” were called Aranyakas.
  • They are the concluding portions of Brahamanas.
  • It is written mainly for the hermits and the students living in Jungle.

The Upanishadas : –

  • There are 108 Upanishadas and “Vrihadaranyaka” is the oldest upanishada.
  • They are Philosophical texts generally called “Vedanta” because they came towards the end of Veda.
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